The basic concept of diseases and the fundamental concepts of Medical chemistry


Majority of bacterial species exist as single celled forms, but some occur as filaments of closely jointed cells. The bacterial cell has a cell membrane. The cytoplasm of bacterial cells contains granules of glycogen, protein and fat and lacks mitochondria and an endoplasmic reticulum.


Viruses are extremely small submicroscopic virus multiply only inside the living cells. Its structure is a sort of RNA core surrounded by a protein sheath. They do not have any cytoplasm. 

Communicable diseases

Cholera – Vibrio cholere

Dysentery – Entameoba histolytics

Polio – Polio virus

Intestinal worms – Taenia solium

Non communicable diseases

Diabetes – defects in the synthesis of insulin from B cells of Langerhans.

Strokes – disturbance of cerebral function due to inadequate occlusion or rupture of the arteries.

Coronary Heart diseases – impairment of heart function due to inadequate blood flow to the heart.

The fundamental concepts of Medical chemistry


Congenital disease

Congenital diseases occur by birth itself. For example color blindness, Haemophilia, mongolism.

Acquired disease

Acquired diseases are acquired after birth. For example cancer, infection, allergies.

Communicable disease

These diseases are transmitted by contact. For example leprosy, AIDS.

Bacterial disease

Diphtheria, tetanus, plague, Typhoid, TB, cholera, leprosy is bacterial diseases.

Diseases spread by virus

Measles, influenza, polio, rabies etc are vital diseases.

Diseases spread by protozoan

Dysentery, amoebiosis, Malaria etc. are the diseases spread by protozoan.

Degenerative disease

These diseases are due to the degeneration of some of the parts of our body.


Allergy is a condition in which a person reacts in a hypersensitive manner to any substance. It may affect the skin and mucous membrane any may cause fever and asthma. During allergy, histamine is the product produced in our blood vessels.

Replacement drugs

Substance replaces the hormone or compound that is in short supply in a particular patient system is called replacement drugs.



Artificial drugs

Artificial drugs are to kill micro organism. It acts as natural defence. It is more toxic to an invader. For example, Penicillin.

Stimulant and depressions

It is to stimulate or depress the action of cells in the body. Ethyl ether, ethanol and the barbiturates are examples of general depressants of nervous system.


A psychological and physiological dependence on the drug is called addiction. For example Heroine or morphine


These drugs are relieving pain. For example latex of opium plant.


Antibiotics are the metabolic product from some specific organism. These drugs kill or inhibit the growth of micro organism.

For example, Penicillin, ampicillin, streptomycin, chloromycetin, tetracycline, cholom phenicol.

Anti depressent

These drugs improve the working efficiency of man in a depressed mood. They produce a feeling of well being and self confidence. Cocaine, Benzedrine or Amphetamine.


These drugs bring down our body temperature. For example asprin, paracetamol and novalgin.


These drugs are to kill micro organism in our living tissue. For example phenol 0.2%, Bithinol added to soap and acriflavine.


Disinfectants kill microorganisms. But they are applied to inanimate objects like floor, drains and public bath rooms, example phenol 1% and chlorine 0.2 to 0.4%.

The basic concept of diseases and the fundamental concepts of Medical chemistry The basic concept of diseases and the fundamental concepts of Medical chemistry Reviewed by knowledge people creators on April 18, 2020 Rating: 5
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